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IP Design for Mobile Networks

by: Mark Grayson, Kevin Shatzkamer, Scott Wainner

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Retail Price: $69.95

Publisher: CISCO PRESS,24/07/2009

Category: Cisco Level: B/I/A

ISBN: 158705826X
ISBN13: 9781587058264

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As the cellular world and the Internet converge, mobile networks are transitioning from circuit to packet and the Internet Protocol (IP) is now recognized as the fundamental building block for all next-generation communication networks. The all-IP vision provides the flexibility to deliver cost-effective services and applications that meet the evolving needs of mobile users. RF engineers, mobile network designers, and system architects will be expected to have an understanding of IP fundamentals and how their role in delivering the end-to-end system is crucial for delivering the all-IP vision that makes the Internet accessible anytime, anywhere.

IP Design for Mobile Networks discusses proper IP design theory to effectively plan and implement your next-generation mobile network so that IP integrates all aspects of the network. The book outlines, from both a standards and a design theory perspective, both the current and target state of mobile networks, and the technology enablers that will assist the migration. This IP transition begins with function-specific migrations of specific network domains and ends with an end-to-end IP network for radio, transport, and service delivery. The book introduces many concepts to give you exposure to the key technology trends and decision points affecting today's mobile operators.

The book is divided into three parts:

Part I provides an overview of how IP is being integrated into mobile systems, including radio systems and cellular networks.
Part II provides an overview of IP, the technologies used for transport and connectivity of today's cellular networks, and how the mobile core is evolving to encompass IP technologies.
Part III provides an overview of the end-to-end services network based on IP, including context awareness and services.
Presents an overview of what mobile networks look like today-including protocols used, transport technologies, and how IP is being used for specific functions in mobile networks
Provides an all-inclusive reference manual for IP design theory as related to the broader application of IP for mobile networks
Imparts a view of upcoming trends in mobility standards to better prepare a network evolution plan for IP-based mobile networks
This book is part of the Networking Technology Series from Cisco Press®, which offers networking professionals valuable information for constructing efficient networks, understanding new technologies, and building successful careers.

Everything telecom engineers need to know to successfully plan, design, and architect IP-based mobile networks

Offers essential technical knowledge about IP's current and evolving roles in mobile networking
Guides engineers in applying IP design theory to the unique challenges of mobile networking
Previews emerging trends and standards in IP-based mobility, offering indispensable guidance for preparing network evolution plans
For engineers at all levels, from junior to CTO


Table of Contents

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Introduction xvi

Part I Cellular Networks and Standards

Chapter 1 Introduction to Radio Systems 1

Spectrum 2

Propagation 5

Outdoor Coverage 6

Frequency-Dependent Propagation Loss 7

Fast Fading 8

Shadowing and Building Penetration Loss 11

Modulation 12

Multiple Access Technologies 18

Time Division Multiple Access 19

Frequency Division Multiple Access 21

Code Division Multiple Access 23

Space Division Multiple Access 27

Combating Radio Impairments 28

Forward Error-Correcting Codes 28

Mitigating Multipath Effects 29

Complexity of Multipath Mitigation 31

Smart Scheduling 31

Automatic Repeat Request 34

Diversity Combining 35

Spatial Multiplexing 35

Summary 37

Endnotes 38

Chapter 2 Cellular Access Systems 41

The GSM Access System 42

Protocol Architecture of GSM Access System 43

GPRS Access Architecture 48

Enhanced Data Rates 53

The UMTS Terrestrial Access Network 55

UTRAN Protocol Architecture of UTRAN 55

UTRAN Transport Network 62

UTRAN Packet-Switched Services 64

Multicast and Broadcast Support 66

High-Speed Packet Access 67

Home Node B 78

The cdma2000 Access System 79

Protocol Architecture of cdma2000 Access System 80

Evolution Data Only 87

Summary 90

Endnotes 90

Chapter 3 All-IP Access Systems 93

Wireless Local Area Networks Access System 94

Interworking WLAN 95

Generic Access Network 97

WiMAX Access System 99

Protocol Architecture of WiMAX Access System 101

WiMAX Physical Layer 102

WiMAX Adaptive Antenna System 105

WiMAX RLC/MAC Layer 106

WiMAX Evolution 107

Long Term Evolution Access System 108

EUTRAN Architecture 108

EUTRAN Security 110

EUTRAN Physical Layer 110

EUTRAN PDCP/RLC/MAC 112

EUTRAN Sharing 113

LTE Advanced 114

ITU-Advanced 114

Summary 115

Endnotes 115

Part II IP and Today's Cellular Network

Chapter 4 An IP Refresher 117

Routing Protocols 117

IP Addressing 118

Routing State 131

x IP Design for Mobile Networks

Connection-Oriented Switching Methods 152

Connectionless Switching Methods 157

Ethernet-Switching Methods 176

IP Transport Protocols 182

Transport of Applications 182

Transport of IP via Tunneling Protocols 187

Transport of Layer 2 Frames via IP Tunneling Protocols 193

Summary 195

Endnotes 195

Chapter 5 Connectivity and Transport 197

Transmission Systems 197

Synchronous Wire-Line 197

Asynchronous Wire-Line 198

Synchronous Wireless 199

Asynchronous Wireless 200

Core Network Requirements 201

Core Network Communication Planes 203

Data Center Access 218

Radio Access Network Requirements 223

Converged TDM Aggregation 223

Divergent Aggregation 225

Converged PSN Aggregation 227

Summary of Core Network and RAN Transport Requirements 229

Mobility Network Transport Architecture 229

3GPP Mobility Protocols 229

Universal Mobile Transport Service-3G 235

3GPP2 Mobility Protocols 241

Code-Division Multiplexing Access (CDMA) 241

IP Transport of CDMA 3G Interfaces 246

3GPP2 Mobility Protocols Summary 251

Long-Term Evolution/System Architecture Evolution: 4G 251

LTE/SAE Architecture 251

Worldwide Interoperability for Mobile Access (WiMAX) 259

Evolution of Transport Infrastructures 268

Endnotes 268

Chapter 6 Mobile Core Evolution 271

Circuit-Switched Domain 271

GSM Mobility Management 273

GSM Mobile Terminated Call 276

GSM Handover 279

Short Message Service 281

cdma2000 Core Network 283

WCDMA Core Network 283

Evolved IP-Based CS Core Network 285

Packet-Switched Domain 288

Core Network Mobility Support 289

PS Core Network Architectures 304

Summary 328

Endnotes 329

Chapter 7 Offloading Traditional Networks with IP 333

Backhaul Offload with Pseudowires 334

Pseudowire Use-Cases 335

Pseudowire Emulation Edge-to-Edge (PWE3) 340

Pseudowires for Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) 341

Time Division Multiplexing over IP (TDMoIP) 344

Circuit Emulation Services over Packet-Switched Networks (CESoPSN) 347

ATM Pseudowires 348

SONET/SDH Circuit Emulation over Packet 352

Abis/Iub Optimization for GSM Networks 353

Timing 354

Radio Access Network and Synchronization 354

Introduction to Timing 356

Timing Architectures 362

Timing Modes 369

Packet-Based Timing 372

Clock Recovery over Packet 373

Timing over Packet Solutions 374

Summary 385

Endnotes 385

Part III The End-to-End Services Network

Chapter 8 End-to-End Context Awareness 387

Policy 387

Proactive and Reactive Policy Control 390

Global Policies 392

Subscriber-Specific Policies 392

Policy Examples 396

A Network of Networks 396

Network Independence Today 397

Network Interdependence Tomorrow 403

Policy in Wireless Standards 404

3GPP Policy Framework 404

3GPP2 Policy Framework 408

WiMAX Policy Framework 412

Maintaining State in a Mobile Network 415

Network Policy Protocols 416

RAN Authorization and Encryption 416

IP Authentication and Authorization 425

Location Awareness 437

Device-Based Mechanisms 437

Network-Based Mechanisms 438

Hybrid Mechanisms for User Location 439

Summary 440

Endnotes 441

Chapter 9 Content and Services 443

Service Delivery Platforms 443

SDP Core Components 444

SDP Overlay Services 449

Intelligent Networks (IN) 452

History of Intelligent Networks 452

IN Architecture 453

Mobile IN 457

Local/Mobile Number Portability 458

Softswitches 459

Voice Over IP 460

Voice Signaling 461

VoIP Bearer Overview 485

IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) 486

IMS Framework 488

IMS Identity/Subscriber Model 489

IMS Building Blocks to New Services 490

Video Delivery over Mobile Networks 490

Unicast Video Delivery 491

Multicast Video Delivery 492

Overlay Broadcast Video Delivery 493

Service Security 496

Summary 497

Index 499


About the Authors

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Mark Grayson is a Distinguished Consulting Engineer at Cisco with responsibility for leading its mobile architecture strategy. He has more than 15 years of experience in the wireless industry. He holds a first-class honors degree in electronics and communications engineering from the University of Birmingham (England) together with a Ph.D in radio communications and has been granted more than 50 patents in the area of mobile communications.

Kevin Shatzkamer is a Customer Solutions Architect at Cisco with responsibility for long-term strategy and architectural evolution of mobile wireless networks. He has worked at Cisco and in the mobile wireless industry for nine years, focusing on various technologies ranging from GSM/UMTS to CDMA networks, packet gateway, networkbased services and security, video distribution, Quality of Service, and end-to-end design theory. Kevin has 16 pending patents related to all areas of work. Kevin holds a bachelor's in engineering from the University of Florida and a master's of business administration from Indiana University.

Scott Wainner is a Distinguished Systems Engineer at Cisco, providing design and consulting support for the major U.S. service providers and enterprises. He joined Cisco in 1999 and has led the architectural development of next-generation IP/MPLS services while applying his innovative efforts toward the development VPN technologies and virtualized services. Scott consults with providers in the development of managed services while guiding Cisco in the development of critical IP technologies, such as session-border controllers, virtual private networks, and multimedia distribution systems. His latest development efforts have focused on group-encrypted security architectures for broadcast/multicast content and network virtualization for the enterprise VPN. Scott has most recently started architectural development of integrated services using IP Multimedia Systems. Prior to joining Cisco, Scott was the Director of Product Development at Qwest and Engineering Manager of Global IP Services at Sprint/GlobalOne. He has been active in the networking industry for more than 23 years, including participation in the IETF and IEEE.