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SAP ERP Financials: Configuration and Design (2nd Edition)

by: Naeem Arif and Sheikh Tauseef

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On-line Price: $94.95 (includes GST)

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Retail Price: $104.95

Publisher: SAP Press,31.08.11

Category: SAP Level:

ISBN: 159229393X
ISBN13: 9781592293933

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Discover best practices for the design and configuration of SAP ERP Financials
. Understand the configuration process by using a real-world, process-oriented approach
. Completely revised to include extended coverage on account assignments, the new SAP General Ledger, and much more

Master the most important issues involved in designing and configuring an SAP ERP Financials implementation using this must-have reference. The new edition of this best-selling book is completely updated to provide you with information on everything from the general areas of SAP ERP Financials and how they fit in the SAP landscape, to how the new SAP General Ledger can work for you. This is an invaluable, process-oriented reference that covers the skills, tools, and knowledge you need to be able to understand and configure your SAP ERP Financials system.

SAP ERP Financials Processes and Concepts
Discover the concepts and design of SAP ERP Financials, and how you can use these elements to help your business run smoothly.

Financial Accounting Configuration
Learn specific configuration details to help you optimize your SAP ERP Financials implementation.

Coverage of Key Submodules
Master SAP General Ledger, Accounts Payable, Accounts Receivable, Asset Accounting, and much more.

Real-World Scenarios and Examples
Use the expert advice and examples throughout to help you with your own financials processes.

Completely Revised and Updated
Find updated content for SAP ERP 6.0, enhancement pack 4, and extended coverage of Controlling configuration.
Highlights

. Enterprise Structure
. SAP General Ledger
. Accounts Payable
. Accounts Receivable
. Asset Accounting
. Controlling
. Data Migration
. Account Determination
. Finance Payroll
. Periodic Allocations
. Foreign Currency Revaluation
. Year-End Closings
The Authors

Naeem Arif and Sheikh Tauseef are both highly experienced SAP consultants who have been involved in many successful SAP implementation projects across North America, Europe, and Asia working for some of the largest companies in the world.
Table of Contents


  ... Acknowledgments ... 19


  1 ... Overview ... 21


  1.1 ... Introduction ... 21


  1.1.1 ... Approach ... 22


  1.1.2 ... Versioning ... 22


  1.1.3 ... Learning Outcomes ... 23


  1.2 ... Brief History of SAP ... 23


  1.3 ... Different Types of Projects ... 24


  1.3.1 ... Fresh Implementation Projects ... 24


  1.3.2 ... Upgrade Projects ... 25


  1.3.3 ... Request-Based Support Projects ... 25


  1.3.4 ... Production-Support Projects ... 26


  1.3.5 ... Rollout Projects ... 26


  1.4 ... Points to Consider for a Successful SAP Implementation ... 27


  1.4.1 ... The Project Team ... 28


  1.4.2 ... SAP Implementation: More Than an IT Project ... 28


  1.4.3 ... The Right Resources ... 28


  1.4.4 ... The Gap Analysis ... 29


  1.4.5 ... Project Testing ... 29


  1.4.6 ... Cutover Plans ... 30


  1.4.7 ... User Training ... 30


  1.4.8 ... The Change Management Program ... 30


  1.5 ... SAP Navigation Basics ... 30


  1.5.1 ... Logging on to the SAP System ... 31


  1.5.2 ... Screen Structure in the SAP System ... 32


  1.5.3 ... Creating Your Favorites List ... 34


  1.5.4 ... Calling Functions in SAP System ... 34


  1.5.5 ... Accessing the Customization Area ... 35


  1.6 ... Summary ... 36


  2 ... SAP Enterprise Structure ... 37


  2.1 ... Building an Enterprise Structure ... 38


  2.2 ... Building a Project's Straw Man ... 39


  2.2.1 ... Company Code ... 40


  2.2.2 ... Cost Center ... 41


  2.2.3 ... Profit Center ... 41


  2.2.4 ... Chart of Accounts ... 42


  2.2.5 ... Controlling Area ... 42


  2.2.6 ... Business Area ... 42


  2.2.7 ... Chart of Depreciation ... 43


  2.3 ... Designing the Straw Man ... 43


  2.4 ... Configuring the Enterprise Structure ... 44


  2.4.1 ... Countries ... 44


  2.4.2 ... Currencies ... 51


  2.4.3 ... Define Company ... 59


  2.4.4 ... Define Fiscal Year Variant ... 60


  2.4.5 ... Define Posting Period Variant ... 62


  2.4.6 ... Define Chart of Accounts ... 64


  2.4.7 ... Structure of the Chart of Accounts ... 66


  2.4.8 ... Define Credit Control Area ... 67


  2.4.9 ... Define Company Code ... 69


  2.4.10 ... Assign Company Code to a Fiscal Year Variant ... 71


  2.4.11 ... Define Controlling Area ... 72


  2.4.12 ... Define Cost Center Group ... 75


  2.4.13 ... Activate Controlling Area Submodules ... 76


  2.4.14 ... Functional Area ... 78


  2.4.15 ... Operating Concern ... 79


  2.4.16 ... Create a Default Profit Center ... 80


  2.4.17 ... Check Company Code Global Parameters ... 82


  2.5 ... Summary ... 84


  3 ... Global Settings for Financial Accounting in SAP ERP Financials ... 85


  3.1 ... What Is a Document in SAP ERP? ... 86


  3.1.1 ... Document Header ... 86


  3.1.2 ... Line Items ... 88


  3.1.3 ... Master Data ... 88


  3.2 ... Configuration of Global Settings ... 89


  3.2.1 ... Define the Retained Earnings Account ... 89


  3.2.2 ... Field Status Groups ... 91


  3.2.3 ... GL Account Groups ... 98


  3.2.4 ... Document Types ... 105


  3.2.5 ... Document Number Ranges ... 111


  3.2.6 ... Purpose of Subledger Reconciliation Accounts ... 114


  3.2.7 ... Document Posting Keys ... 115


  3.2.8 ... Updating Layout for the Document Entry Screen ... 118


  3.2.9 ... GL Document Display and Layouts (Default Settings) ... 119


  3.2.10 ... Document Change Rules ... 121


  3.2.11 ... Cross-Company Code Settings ... 123


  3.2.12 ... Employee Tolerances ... 124


  3.2.13 ... Change Message Control for Posting to GL Accounts ... 126


  3.2.14 ... Financial Statement Versions ... 128


  3.3 ... Sales and Purchase Tax ... 131


  3.3.1 ... Basic Settings ... 134


  3.3.2 ... Posting ... 138


  3.3.3 ... Changing Tax Laws in the United Kingdom and Europe ... 142


  3.4 ... Summary ... 143


  4 ... New General Ledger ... 145


  4.1 ... Overview of the GL ... 146


  4.1.1 ... The New GL ... 146


  4.1.2 ... New Functionality ... 148


  4.1.3 ... New Tables ... 149


  4.1.4 ... Document Splitting ... 149


  4.1.5 ... Parallel Accounting ... 151


  4.1.6 ... Ongoing Use of Classic GL ... 151


  4.2 ... Building Your New GL Blueprint ... 152


  4.2.1 ... New GL or Classic GL? ... 152


  4.2.2 ... What Object to Split ... 152


  4.2.3 ... Which Account Assignment Objects to Incorporate into Your Model ... 152


  4.2.4 ... How Document Splitting Fits in with Other Add-Ons ... 153


  4.3 ... Configuration Steps to Activate the New GL ... 153


  4.3.1 ... Activation of New GL Accounting ... 154


  4.3.2 ... Define Ledgers for GL Accounting ... 154


  4.3.3 ... Segment ... 160


  4.3.4 ... Integrating the GL with Subcomponents ... 164


  4.3.5 ... Document Splitting ... 174


  4.3.6 ... Parallel Accounting ... 186


  4.3.7 ... Setting Up Additional Ledgers ... 188


  4.3.8 ... CO Transfer Postings ... 190


  4.3.9 ... Planning in the New GL ... 190


  4.3.10 ... Integration with Asset Accounting ... 191


  4.4 ... IFRS Compliance ... 192


  4.4.1 ... IFRS 5-Noncurrent Assets Held for Sale or Discontinued Operations ... 192


  4.4.2 ... IFRS 8-Operating Segments ... 193


  4.4.3 ... IAS 7-Cash Flow Statements ... 193


  4.4.4 ... IAS 10-Events after the Balance Sheet Date ... 193


  4.4.5 ... IAS 16-Property, Plant, and Equipment ... 194


  4.4.6 ... IAS 19-Employee Benefits ... 194


  4.4.7 ... IAS 36-Impairment of Assets ... 194


  4.5 ... Summary ... 195


  5 ... Accounts Payable ... 197


  5.1 ... Overview of the P2P cycle ... 198


  5.1.1 ... Purchase Order ... 199


  5.1.2 ... Goods Receipt ... 199


  5.1.3 ... Invoice Verification ... 200


  5.1.4 ... AP Invoice ... 200


  5.1.5 ... Outgoing Payment ... 201


  5.2 ... Building an AP Business Model ... 201


  5.2.1 ... Design of Vendor Master Records ... 201


  5.2.2 ... Invoice Processing Control ... 202


  5.2.3 ... The Payment Process ... 202


  5.3 ... Master Data ... 202


  5.3.1 ... Vendor Master Records ... 203


  5.4 ... Vendor Account Groups ... 205


  5.4.1 ... General Data View ... 208


  5.4.2 ... Company Code View ... 210


  5.4.3 ... Purchasing Data View ... 211


  5.4.4 ... Vendor Account Group Variations ... 212


  5.5 ... Vendor Number Ranges ... 213


  5.5.1 ... Business Decisions ... 214


  5.5.2 ... Create Vendor Number Ranges ... 215


  5.5.3 ... Transporting Number Ranges ... 216


  5.5.4 ... Assign a Number Range to an Account Group ... 216


  5.5.5 ... Extending Vendors to Additional Company Codes ... 217


  5.6 ... Accounting Clerks ... 219


  5.7 ... Define Sensitive Fields for Dual Control ... 220


  5.8 ... House Banks ... 222


  5.8.1 ... Configuring the House Bank ... 223


  5.8.2 ... Bank Master Records ... 225


  5.8.3 ... Define Number Ranges for Checks ... 227


  5.9 ... Invoice Processing ... 228


  5.9.1 ... Nonstock Invoices ... 228


  5.9.2 ... Invoice Verification (Processing Stock Invoices) ... 229


  5.9.3 ... Duplication Invoice Check ... 230


  5.10 ... Document Parking ... 231


  5.11 ... Configuring Special General Ledger Indicators for AR/AP Down Payment Postings ... 233


  5.12 ... Posting and Clearing Down Payments ... 235


  5.12.1 ... Posting Down Payments ... 235


  5.12.2 ... Clearing Down Payments ... 238


  5.13 ... Outgoing Payments Processing ... 239


  5.13.1 ... Processing a Manual (Outgoing) Payment ... 239


  5.13.2 ... Vendor Tolerances ... 241


  5.13.3 ... Automatic Posting of Payment Differences ... 242


  5.13.4 ... Cross-Company Code Manual Payments ... 244


  5.13.5 ... Payment Block Reasons ... 244


  5.13.6 ... Automatic Payment Program ... 248


  5.13.7 ... Running the Automatic Payment Program ... 254


  5.14 ... Cash Journal ... 257


  5.14.1 ... Configuring Cash Journals ... 257


  5.14.2 ... Cash Journal Postings ... 264


  5.15 ... Electronic Bank Statements ... 266


  5.15.1 ... Configuring Electronic Bank Statements ... 267


  5.15.2 ... Importing Electronic Bank Statements into SAP ... 276


  5.16 ... Summary ... 279


  6 ... Accounts Receivable ... 281


  6.1 ... Overview of the Order-to-Cash Process ... 281


  6.1.1 ... Sales Order ... 282


  6.1.2 ... Delivery Note ... 283


  6.1.3 ... Billing Document ... 283


  6.1.4 ... AR Invoice ... 283


  6.2 ... Building an Accounts Receivable Business Model ... 284


  6.3 ... Master Data ... 285


  6.4 ... Customer Master Records ... 285


  6.4.1 ... The Nature of the Customer Database ... 286


  6.4.2 ... Manual or Automatic Creation of Customer Master Records ... 287


  6.4.3 ... Searching for Existing Customers (Matchcodes) ... 288


  6.4.4 ... Define Account Groups ... 290


  6.4.5 ... Company Code or Activity Account Groups ... 296


  6.4.6 ... Extending Your Customers to Additional Company Codes ... 298


  6.4.7 ... Customer Number Ranges ... 299


  6.4.8 ... Accounting Clerks ... 302


  6.5 ... Finance Documents Global Settings ... 303


  6.5.1 ... Document Types and Number Ranges ... 303


  6.5.2 ... Document Posting Keys ... 303


  6.5.3 ... Payment Terms ... 303


  6.6 ... Customer Invoice Processing ... 304


  6.7 ... Configuring Special General Ledger Indicators for AR/AP Down Payment Postings ... 305


  6.7.1 ... Posting and Clearing Down Payments ... 308


  6.8 ... Customer Payments ... 311


  6.8.1 ... Defining Customer Tolerances ... 313


  6.8.2 ... Write-off Amounts within Tolerance ... 316


  6.8.3 ... Reason Codes ... 317


  6.9 ... Debtor Management ... 319


  6.9.1 ... Credit Limit Business Process ... 320


  6.9.2 ... Automatic Credit Control ... 325


  6.9.3 ... Dunning ... 328


  6.9.4 ... Configuring Interest Calculations ... 335


  6.9.5 ... Calculating Interest ... 345


  6.9.6 ... Head Office Functionality ... 347


  6.10 ... Summary ... 347


  7 ... Asset Accounting ... 349


  7.1 ... Overview of Asset Accounting ... 350


  7.1.1 ... Implementation Considerations ... 350


  7.1.2 ... Integration ... 351


  7.2 ... Building Blocks of Asset Accounting ... 351


  7.2.1 ... Chart of Depreciation ... 352


  7.2.2 ... Asset Assignment to Organizational Units ... 353


  7.2.3 ... Integration with the GL ... 354


  7.2.4 ... Structuring Your Fixed Assets Design ... 355


  7.3 ... Building an Asset Accounting Business Model ... 355


  7.4 ... Asset Accounting Configuration ... 357


  7.4.1 ... Copy Reference Chart of Depreciation ... 357


  7.4.2 ... Assign Chart of Depreciation to a Company Code ... 359


  7.4.3 ... Specify a Number Assignment across Company Codes ... 360


  7.4.4 ... Specify Account Determination ... 361


  7.4.5 ... Create Screen Layout Rules ... 362


  7.4.6 ... Define Asset Number Range Intervals ... 364


  7.4.7 ... Define Asset Classes ... 365


  7.4.8 ... Define Depreciation Areas ... 366


  7.4.9 ... Specify Transfer of Acquisition and Production Costs Values ... 368


  7.4.10 ... Specify Transfer of Depreciation Terms ... 369


  7.4.11 ... Determine Depreciation Areas in the Asset Classes ... 370


  7.4.12 ... Deactivate Asset Classes for Chart of Depreciation ... 371


  7.4.13 ... Define how Depreciation Areas Post to the GL ... 372


  7.4.14 ... Maintain Depreciation Key ... 373


  7.4.15 ... Define Base Method ... 374


  7.4.16 ... Define Declining Balance Method ... 377


  7.4.17 ... Define Multilevel Methods ... 377


  7.4.18 ... Maintain Period Control Methods ... 379


  7.4.19 ... Activate Account Assignment Objects ... 380


  7.4.20 ... Specify Account Assignment Types for Account Assignment Objects ... 382


  7.4.21 ... Assign GL Accounts ... 383


  7.4.22 ... Parallel Ledgers in SAP New General Ledger and Integration with Asset Accounting ... 386


  7.4.23 ... Specify the Document Type for Posting Depreciation ... 389


  7.4.24 ... Transaction Types ... 391


  7.4.25 ... Configuring the Asset History Sheet ... 396


  7.4.26 ... Defining Validations for Asset Master Data ... 399


  7.4.27 ... Substitutions for Asset Master Data ... 402


  7.5 ... Asset Transaction Processing ... 404


  7.5.1 ... Create a New Asset Master Record ... 404


  7.5.2 ... Post Values to an Asset Using External Acquisition ... 408


  7.5.3 ... Working with Asset Explorer ... 411


  7.5.4 ... Post Transfers to Other Assets ... 415


  7.5.5 ... Post Retirements with Scrapping ... 418


  7.5.6 ... Post Depreciation Run ... 420


  7.6 ... Current Asset Valuation ... 422


  7.6.1 ... Inventory Valuation ... 422


  7.6.2 ... Accounts Receivables Valuation ... 425


  7.7 ... Summary ... 429


  8 ... Controlling in SAP ERP Financials ... 431


  8.1 ... Overview and Diagram ... 432


  8.2 ... Subcomponents of the Controlling Component ... 433


  8.2.1 ... Cost Element Accounting ... 433


  8.2.2 ... Cost Center Accounting ... 433


  8.2.3 ... Internal Orders ... 433


  8.2.4 ... Profit Center Accounting ... 434


  8.3 ... Building a Controlling Model ... 434


  8.3.1 ... Concept of Real and Statistical Postings ... 436


  8.4 ... Configuration Settings in Controlling ... 437


  8.4.1 ... Basic Controlling Area Settings ... 437


  8.4.2 ... Cost Element Accounting ... 443


  8.4.3 ... Cost Center Accounting (CCA) ... 449


  8.4.4 ... Internal Order Accounting Configuration ... 456


  8.4.5 ... Profit Center Accounting Configuration ... 463


  8.5 ... Concepts of Periodic Reposting, Distribution, and Assessment ... 469


  8.5.1 ... Periodic Reposting ... 470


  8.5.2 ... Distribution ... 471


  8.5.3 ... Assessment ... 473


  8.6 ... Real-Time Integration of Controlling with Financial Accounting ... 476


  8.6.1 ... Configuration Settings ... 477


  8.7 ... Cost Center Planning ... 480


  8.7.1 ... Versions in Controlling ... 480


  8.7.2 ... Planning Layouts and Planner Profiles ... 480


  8.8 ... Summary ... 485


  9 ... SAP ERP Financials Integration ... 487


  9.1 ... Automatic Account Determination ... 490


  9.1.1 ... Inventory Movement Account Determination ... 491


  9.1.2 ... Billing: Revenue Account Determination ... 501


  9.1.3 ... Payment Processing Account Determination ... 508


  9.2 ... Master Data ... 510


  9.2.1 ... Account Assignment Objects ... 511


  9.2.2 ... Document Types and Number Ranges ... 513


  9.2.3 ... Payment Terms ... 514


  9.2.4 ... Journal Entry Screen Layouts ... 518


  9.3 ... Integrating SAP Payroll with SAP ERP Financials ... 519


  9.3.1 ... Employee Master Records ... 520


  9.3.2 ... Payroll Process ... 523


  9.3.3 ... Wage Types ... 524


  9.3.4 ... Symbolic Accounts ... 525


  9.3.5 ... Automatic Account Determination ... 526


  9.3.6 ... Finance Posting Variant ... 530


  9.4 ... Interfaces ... 531


  9.4.1 ... Purpose of the Interface ... 532


  9.4.2 ... Interface Design ... 533


  9.4.3 ... Interface Testing ... 536


  9.5 ... The Value of Integration Testing ... 536


  9.6 ... Summary ... 537


  10 ... Data Migration ... 539


  10.1 ... Key Principles of Data Migration ... 540


  10.2 ... The Six-Step Migration Model ... 541


  10.2.1 ... Source/Data Cleansing ... 542


  10.2.2 ... Field Mapping ... 543


  10.2.3 ... Define Programs ... 543


  10.2.4 ... Records Mapping ... 544


  10.2.5 ... Trial Loads ... 545


  10.2.6 ... Cutover ... 545


  10.3 ... Inventory Transfer ... 546


  10.4 ... Open Items Transfer ... 547


  10.5 ... Upgrade to SAP ERP 6.0 ... 547


  10.6 ... Asset Accounting Legacy Data Transfer ... 549


  10.6.1 ... Define Asset Transfer Date ... 549


  10.6.2 ... Create Legacy Assets ... 551


  10.6.3 ... Transfer Balances ... 554


  10.7 ... Create Your Own LSMWs to Assist in Data Migration ... 555


  10.7.1 ... Benefits of LSMW ... 555


  10.7.2 ... Define the LSMW Name ... 557


  10.7.3 ... Maintain Object Attributes ... 558


  10.7.4 ... Maintain Source Structure ... 561


  10.7.5 ... Maintain Source Fields ... 561


  10.7.6 ... Maintain Structure Relations ... 563


  10.7.7 ... Maintain Field Mapping and Conversion Rules ... 563


  10.7.8 ... Maintain Fixed Values, Translations, and User-Defined Routines ... 564


  10.7.9 ... Specify Files ... 564


  10.7.10 ... Assign Files ... 566


  10.7.11 ... Create Load File ... 566


  10.7.12 ... Upload Load File Data ... 567


  10.7.13 ... Create Batch Input Session ... 569


  10.7.14 ... Run Batch Session ... 570


  10.7.15 ... Cross Application of LSMW ... 572


  10.8 ... Summary ... 572


  11 ... Period-End Closing ... 573


  11.1 ... Fast Close with the New GL ... 574


  11.2 ... Key Elements of a Period-End Timetable ... 575


  11.3 ... Dependent Activities Already Completed ... 575


  11.4 ... Analysis of Period-End Activities ... 575


  11.5 ... Foreign Currency Valuation ... 582


  11.5.1 ... Configuring Foreign Currency Valuations ... 582


  11.5.2 ... Foreign Currency Valuation Processing ... 587


  11.6 ... Classic GL versus the New GL ... 595


  11.7 ... Summary ... 596


  12 ... SAP ERP Financials Reporting ... 597


  12.1 ... Building Your Reporting Suite ... 597


  12.2 ... Reporting Tools ... 599


  12.3 ... Common Reporting Requirements ... 600


  12.3.1 ... Accounts Payable (AP) ... 602


  12.3.2 ... Accounts Receivable (AR) ... 604


  12.3.3 ... Asset Accounting (AA) ... 605


  12.3.4 ... General Ledger ... 606


  12.4 ... Creating Basic Management Accounting Reports with Report Painter ... 607


  12.4.1 ... Decide on the Report Type ... 608


  12.4.2 ... Define a Row ... 611


  12.4.3 ... Define a Column ... 613


  12.4.4 ... Define Formula Rows and Columns ... 615


  12.4.5 ... Define your General Data Selection ... 616


  12.4.6 ... Report Layout ... 618


  12.4.7 ... Other Report Layout Formatting ... 621


  12.4.8 ... Assign Report Group ... 624


  12.4.9 ... Change Report Group ... 625


  12.5 ... International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) ... 627


  12.6 ... Parallel Accounting Approaches ... 628


  12.6.1 ... Accounts Approach ... 629


  12.6.2 ... Special Ledgers Approach ... 629


  12.6.3 ... Multiple Ledger Approach in the New GL ... 630


  12.7 ... Summary ... 631


  13 ... Implementing and Supporting SAP ERP Financials ... 633


  13.1 ... Implementing SAP ... 633


  13.1.1 ... Preparation ... 634


  13.1.2 ... Design Phase ... 636


  13.1.3 ... Build ... 641


  13.1.4 ... Final Preparation ... 645


  13.2 ... Supporting Your SAP ERP Solution ... 646


  13.2.1 ... Go-Live Support (Stabilization) ... 646


  13.2.2 ... Long-Term Support ... 647


  13.3 ... Summary ... 650


  ... The Authors ... 651


  ... Index ... 653